2. Models, theories, and philosophies (e.g., bilingual-bicultural, total communication, oral/aural) that provide the basis for educational practice(s) for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, as consistent with program philosophy.
3. Variations in beliefs, traditions, and values across cultures and within society, and the effect of the relationships among children who are deaf or hard of hearing, their families, and schooling.
4. Issues in definition and identification procedures for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing (e.g., cultural versus medical perspective).
5. Rights and responsibilities (e.g., Deaf Children's Bill of Rights) of parents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to students who are deaf or hard of hearing.
6. The impact of various educational placement options (from the perspective of the needs of any given child who is deaf or hard of hearing and consistent with program philosophy) with regard to cultural identity and linguistic, academic, and social-emotional development.
8. Articulate pros and cons of current issues and trends in special education and the field of education of children who are deaf or hard of hearing.
9. Identify the major contributors to the growth and improvement of knowledge and practice in the field of education of children who are deaf or hard of hearing.